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Immune System – The Building blocks

Immune System – The Building blocks

The immune system is one of the most amazing defense systems ever built. You will appreciate it if you understand the intricate details of how the different cells work.

Let’s try and understand what are the different types of immune systems available in our body.

Innate – It is not educated nor is it selective. They don’t need a trigger to be activated. Its first kills the foreign object and then asks the question. They provide the 1st level of defense and are very quick to respond. Very similar to the pawns in your chess board. These are comprised of the Phagocytes. The effector cells that are part of the white blood cells (WBC) coming from the bone marrow are:

  • Neutrophils (No stain)
  • Eosinophils (Stain Red) – Basic function not known but they attack the larvae of the worms in our bloodstream and also responsible for causing asthma
  • Mast or Basophil cells (Stain Blue) – Cause allergic reaction or anaphylaxis

“Antigen Presenting Cells” :

  • Macrophages (monocyte) – Attacks and also triggers other cells, responsible for the bridge between Innate and Adaptive
  • Dendritic cells – Professional APC and killers

Natural Killer Cells: They are part of the T Cells which are adaptive but they have moved over to Innate and work with the cells here. They not only attack pathogens as part of the immune response but they are also constantly checking and feeling the health of the cells. If it identifies a sick cells then it attacks and kills it. The tumor sick cell will display MICA in the MHC1.

Adaptive – They are smart and are educated, always learning and selective of the attack. They provide the 2nd level of defense and provide a delayed response. Very similar to the Knights and the Bishops in your chess board. . There are 2 types – Humoral (B-Cells) – APC and Cell- Mediated (T-Cells). T-Cells are further divided into T-Killer CD8 and T-Helper cells (0,1&2).

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