Indian Custard Apple – Sugar apple, Mullu Sitapazham, graviola plant or soursop
The major components of this fruit are compounds known as acetogenins. They prevent the cell from making ATP, an important energy source. In lab studies, the extract killed cancer cells resistant to commonly used chemotherapy drugs such as adriamycin. It also appeared to be more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.
In 1997, Purdue University published information with promising news that several of the Annonaceous acetogenins were ” . . . not only are effective in killing tumors that have proven resistant to anti-cancer agents, but also seem to have a special affinity for such resistant cells.” In several interviews after this information was publicized, the head pharmacologist in Purdue’s research explained how this worked. As he explains it, cancer cells that survive chemotherapy can develop resistance to the agent originally used as well as to other, even unrelated, drugs. This phenomenon is called multi-drug resistance (MDR). One of the main ways that cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs is by creating an intercellular pump which is capable of pushing anticancer agents out of the cell before they can kill it. On average, only about two percent of the cancer cells in any given person might develop this pump—but they are the two percent that can eventually grow and expand to create multi-drug-resistant tumors. Some of the latest research on acetogenins reported that they were capable of shutting down these intercellular pumps, thereby killing multi-drug-resistant tumors. Purdue researchers reported that the acetogenins preferentially killed multi-drug-resistant cancer cells by blocking the transfer of ATP—the chief source of cellular energy—into them. A tumor cell needs energy to grow and reproduce, and a great deal more to run its pump and expel attacking agents. By inhibiting energy to the cell , it can no longer run its pump. When acetogenins block ATP to the tumor cell over time, the cell no longer has enough energy to operate sustaining processes—and it dies. Normal cells seldom develop such a pump; therefore, they don’t require large amounts of energy to run a pump and, generally, are not adversely affected by ATP inhibitors. Purdue researchers reported that 14 different acetogenins tested thus far demonstrate potent ATP-blocking properties (including several found only in graviola). They also reported that 13 of these 14 acetogenins tested were more potent against MDR breast cancer cells than all three of the standard drugs (adriamycin, vincristine, and vinblastine) they used as controls.
The Annonaceous acetogenins discovered in graviola thus far include: annocatalin, annohexocin, annomonicin, annomontacin, annomuricatin A & B, annomuricin A thru E, annomutacin, annonacin, annonacinone, annopentocin A thru C, cis-annonacin, cis-corossolone, cohibin A thru D, corepoxylone, coronin, corossolin, corossolone, donhexocin, epomuricenin A & B, gigantetrocin, gigantetrocin A & B, gigantetrocinone, gigantetronenin, goniothalamicin, iso-annonacin, javoricin, montanacin, montecristin, muracin A thru G, muricapentocin, muricatalicin, muricatalin, muri-catenol, muricatetrocin A & B muricatin D, muricatocin A thru C muricin H, muricin I, muricoreacin, murihexocin 3, murihexocin A thru C, murihexol, murisolin, robustocin, rolliniastatin 1 & 2, saba-delin, solamin, uvariamicin I & IV, xylomaticin Biological Activites and Clinical Research.
Names for Annona squamosa in other languages
- Arabic – shajarat il-qishṭa (شجرة القشطة)
- Assamese – at.loch (আতলচ)
- Chinese Mandarin – Shi-jia (釋迦)
- Kannada – sithaphala (ಸೀತಾಫಲ)
- Bangla – atta (আতা)
- French – cachiman or Pomme-cannelle
- Haitian Creole – kachiman
- Hindi -Sharifa
- Indonesia – srikaya
- Malay – buah nona
- Malayalam – aattha chakka (chakka = jackfruit)
- Tamil – சீதாப்பழம் seethaa pazham
- Telugu – సీతాఫలం Sita phalam